The Law of Turkmenistan on Education guarantees citizens of Turkmenistan the opportunity to get an education regardless of their nationality, skin color, gender, origin, property and official status, place of residence, language, attitude to religion, political beliefs or other circumstances, as well as age and health status.
Citizens have also guaranteed access to compulsory and free general secondary education.
The Law stipulates the principle of inclusive education. The conditions will be created for persons with disabilities to be educated in general educational institutions.
What educational programs are available in Turkmenistan and what are the terms of study?
In Turkmenistan, educational programs are divided into:
- General education programs, including:
– preschool education;
– primary education – at least four academic years.
– basic secondary education – up to six academic years, while the total duration of training in a general education institution, taking into account primary education, will be up to ten academic years.
– full secondary education – up to two years. The term of secondary education is 12 years, including primary, basic and full secondary education.
- Professional education programs, including:
-vocational education – training period from year to one and a half academic years
-secondary vocational education – from two to four academic years
– higher professional education- (bachelor’s program – four academic years; master’s program – from one to two academic years; specialist program – from five to six academic years).
– postgraduate professional education;
– professional development and retraining of personnel.
The classification of educational levels in Turkmenistan is based on the UNESCO International Standard Classification of Education.
What is the main language of education in Turkmenistan?
The Turkmen language as the state language is the main language of training and education in all types of educational institutions of Turkmenistan, regardless of their forms of ownership.
All general education institutions should provide training in the state language of Turkmenistan.
Professional educational institutions provide training in the state language of Turkmenistan and in a foreign language, based on the purpose of educational programs.
In addition, the education system will facilitate the study of foreign languages, including the official languages of the United Nations, in educational institutions of all types, regardless of their forms of ownership.
What educational institutions operate in Turkmenistan?
According to this Law, educational institutions include the following types of institutions:
1) preschool institutions;
2) general education institutions;
3) institutions of vocational and technical education;
4) institutions of secondary vocational education;
5) institutions of higher professional education;
6) institutions of postgraduate professional education;
7) institutions of advanced training and retraining of personnel;
8) special educational institutions for students with disabilities;
9) special educational institutions for orphans and children left without parental care or persons replacing them;
10) institutions of extracurricular and additional education;
11) other institutions engaged in educational activities.
Who has the right to establish an educational institution?
The state authorities and local self-government bodies; legal entities and citizens of Turkmenistan; foreign legal entities and foreigners; public associations registered in the territory of Turkmenistan; are eligible to establish an educational institution.
State and other educational institutions have the right to carry out paid educational activities. In particular, general education institutions that offer in-depth study of academic subjects, as well as provide students with a wide range of additional educational services, may charge school fees.
Institutions of secondary vocational and higher vocational education have the right to provide paid training, for example, when admitting students in excess of the planned quantity for the relevant professional educational programs funded from the State Budget of Turkmenistan; and when enrolling in specialties for which no budget funding is provided.
An educational institution of a non-state form of ownership charges students a fee for educational services.
What is the minimum qualification level of teachers?
The Law establishes the minimum qualification level for teaching staff.
Preschool teachers, primary school teachers, subject teachers in general education institutions are required to have a bachelor’s degree or a specialist’s degree issued by a higher educational institution (faculty) of a pedagogical profile.
This provision of the law (paragraph 1 and 2 of part three, Article 47) is put into effect from the year of transition of the training of preschool teachers and primary school teachers in the educational programs of secondary vocational education to the educational programs of higher vocational education.
Teachers in institutions of higher professional education must have a master’s degree or a specialist’s diploma in the relevant field of training (specialty), issued by a higher educational institution (faculty) of a pedagogical profile. If the diploma does not provide for a pedagogical qualification, then its holder takes a course of pedagogical training in a higher educational institution (at the faculty) of a pedagogical profile.
What benefits does the Law provide?
The educational institutions ensure the maintenance and training of orphans and children left without parental care on the basis of full state support. The same provision is applicable for orphans-students in institutions of higher and secondary vocational education on a full-time basis until the age of 24.
Orphans, children with disabilities, persons with disabilities of groups I and II, children of military personnel (employees) of military and law enforcement agencies who died on duty, graduates of general education institutions awarded with gold, silver and bronze medals, children from large families (at least eight children) can be enrolled in state vocational education institutions out of competition, provided that they successfully pass the entrance tests.
Persons of Turkmen nationality but non-citizens of Turkmenistan enjoy the right to be educated in educational institutions of Turkmenistan under the conditions established for citizens of Turkmenistan. /// nCa, 11 June 2021